They are organized into sections on genetic theories inherited mechanisms that cause or predispose people to be addictedmetabolic theories biological, cellular adaptation to chronic exposure to drugsconditioning theories built on the idea of the cumulative reinforcement from drugs or other activitiesand adaptation theories those exploring the social and psychological functions performed by drug effects.
Suppose that another of the major personality theories for instance, the idea that personality is derived from a mainly genetically driven process is found to be correct. One may wonder whether models built on social-psychological and experiential dynamics make any sense when confronted with the behavior of laboratory animals or newly born infants.
We cannot become addicted to any action or chemical if we never engage in that action or take the chemical. The aim is to make the unconscious conscious in order for the client to gain insight. They are usually only interested in the problems facing individuals or small groups of individuals.
In behaviourist terms, this is reinforcing and SLT also acts to initiate behaviour when we see others being vicariously reinforced. Risk Factors In this section we will consider factors that make it more or less likely that an individual will develop an addiction.
Moreover, this type of theorizing is badly strained—as are all metabolic theories of addiction—by the commonplace observations of drug abuse and addiction that were noted in chapter 1.
As early asWikler found that heroin addicts were far more likely to relapse when in a similar situation or with the same people as when indulging in the habit originally.
Thus, the social environment influences our cognitive appraisals. Later that same year, Elisabeth volunteered to be a subject in some genetic research that was taking place at her local hospital.
Children brought up in families were parents openly smoke and drink will grow up believing these behaviours to be normal and expected. This explains why, having started to smoke it very quickly becomes habit-forming possibly leading to craving and addiction.
Nelson-Jones gave as examples Existential Psychotherapy - merging of psychodynamic and existential methods and concepts; and his own Personal Responsibility Counselling and Therapy - existential, humanistic, psychodynamic, cognitive and behavioural theories.
Groups that share the hypermetabolism of alcohol that Eskimos and Indians display called Oriental flushsuch as the Chinese and Japanese, have among the lowest alcoholism rates in America.
The possibility of a haphazard incorporation of ideas, methods subjectively based on personal appeal happens when there is neither validation nor rationale for the methods employed Lazarus et al, Counselling helps people to be more open about their thoughts and this is one of the many ways depression can be cured.
By helping clients to recognise negative thought patterns they can learn new positive ways of thinking which ultimately will affect their feelings and their behaviour. Our answers to this question lead on to an even more difficult, but absolutely vital, question: When self-administered cocaine was made available to the monkeys, the subordinate animals got hooked on the dopamine boost from the cocaine.Critical Evaluation of the Psychodynamic Approach - Critical Evaluation of the Psychodynamic Approach The psychodynamic approach, developed by Freud, emphasizes the interplay of unconscious psychological processes in determining human thought, feelings, and behaviour.
Approaches to Counselling See also: Mediation Skills This page provides an overview of three of the main approaches used by professional counsellors, psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioural – there are many more approaches but these three are the most commonly practised.
About Counselling Tutor. Hello and thank you for visiting agronumericus.com, my name is Rory Lees-Oakes, I am a former senior lecturer in counselling who taught for over a decade. During that time I also worked as a school counsellor in a secondary school supporting young people.
Differences between counselling and psychotherapy are largely in the eye of the beholder; both are relatively recent, mainly personally focused approaches to centuries-old traditions of providing culturally appropriate responses to "problems of living".
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